Still a step backward, and the France will be assigned to the historical place of second largest exporter agricultural Brazil. The hexagon control more that 5 of world trade, just in front of the Latin American giant, which ensures it is 4.5. The France is now far behind the US, at the top, which account for 12 of international agricultural sales. Habs agriculture has continued to back on the international markets for 15 years, and it is talonnée by the Brazil since 2007, date on which this country is spent before the Canada.
"These figures show clearly that the centre of gravity of world agriculture is switch for the benefit of Latin America", said Thierry Pouch, Economist of the Chambers of agriculture. The opening of markets, with including the agreement of the world Organization of the (WTO) trade in Marrakech in 1993, initiated a movement of erosion of national positions, which has continued to deteriorate since. The global economic crisis has accelerated the movement and added to the fragmentation of the national Assembly. French farmers income fell by 50 in two years. Agri-food trade surplus, still third contributor to the overall trade balance, fell from 38 in 2009, EUR 5 billion.
Little room for manoeuvre
Products that have the most lost of land are the traditional strengths of the France: cereal products dairy, wine and spirits, sugar. The main markets (USA, Japan, United Kingdom, Germany...) have narrowed as shrinking. Sales of champagne fell from 45 to the height of the crisis. The surplus of the only unprocessed agricultural products has still suffered most as the agri-food products, reducing to one of more than 50 over the period. With the exception of live cattle all positions declined.
"The commercial battle engaged in recent years is terrifying," loose Thierry Pouch. "Each sharpens its weapons out exchange rate, wage costs, the areas in which we have more room for manoeuvre." "Structural differences between the countries which compete on the international agricultural scene are huge, which also explains the growing difficulty in finding an agreement between members of the World Trade Organization," he continued. Large companies were well understood and they have chosen to make acquisitions in countries which have unrivalled competitive advantages. This is the case of Tereos, second sugar European, which develops interests inherited from Béghin-Say to the Brazil. It is also the case of soft, after the reduction of 40 of European subsidies, which took Frangosul, another Brazilian actor. Many others left attempt by Brazil, Chile or Argentina, adventure in wine. "Firepower of the Brazilian State is used them to open the borders of Europe," adds Thierry Pouch.
Waiting for the CAP 2013
For SMEs not wishing to expatriate, the renegotiation of the common agricultural policy (Cap) in 2013 could be an opportunity to arrest a decline which seems otherwise inevitable with the rise of other emerging countries like China and the India. Since 1992, the European Union initiated a major deregulation movement, the premise might still buy food resources elsewhere. This reasoning, found to be contrary to the French interests by public authorities, was until now largely fueled by the countries of Northern Europe, eager to spend less for agriculture.
Things have changed recently. The crisis has undermined the spirits. The astonishment of its neighbours, the United Kingdom, acquired in the trade for three hundred years, begins to wonder about the importance of self-sufficiency. Another alternative being considered in some circles of researchers would consider agriculture as a public good and leave the agriculture of international negotiations.