Why try assumptions as facts exist To scientifically measure the attractiveness of residential cities, the sociologists incumbent Chair city and real estate from the University of Paris-Dauphine Hervé Alexandre, François Cusin and Claire Juillard were drawn from statistics from censuses of Insee 1999 and 2006 tracing the actual flows of population (natural and migratory), in a hundred cities French. That it reflects an ideal geography, a properly conducted urban marketing, a suitable supply of housing or a competitive economy, the attractiveness of a city is mathematically the number of entrants and leavers. "We studied 90 charts published in the press since the inaugural ranking of"Point"in 1974 and we realized that the results changed sometimes from one year to another, while the urban and social changes are much longer, researchers explain." We have returned the process: rather than seek a priori the factors which could attract new residents, we found the movements increase or decrease in the populations and by then identified the explanatory criteria. "Surprise: Nantes and Rennes, always at the top of class, are not so well placed, while the Ajaccio rush is remarkable: this town of less than 70,000 inhabitants displays a net migration of 20 with more than 10,000 new arrivals between 1999 and 2006.
Then come with more than 5 growth, Bastia, Arcachon, Sète and Fréjus, confirming the idea that the size is not necessarily a plus. Sixty cities lose of residential mobility, more a surplus of school leavers by a deficit of newcomers. At the top of these poor students, Charleville-Mézières, which sees leave 8.8 of the population, followed by Dunkerque, Maubeuge, Le Havre, Montbéliard and Cherbourg. Paris, including the negative relative balance is that 1.5, still lost in the absolute 145,000 inhabitants on the period and is found in 52eposition in the General ranking.
A sunny France
How to explain these findings Among the collection of selected indicators, the number of start-ups including cinema seats sold, rail traffic and sunshine, the sociologists in identified 10 which would explain 90 of the residential attractiveness (see table). Some appear to be obvious, as the number of priority education zones (ZEP), rather chilling. Test in attractive contrast, the high share of frameworks and intellectual professions, synonymous with skilled jobs and a good level of life generally. Others are less immediate: the large number of housing built between 1949 and 1974 is analyzed as a foil because it evokes the large sets of housing social, witnesses today urban problems, low tax revenues and financial burdens for the Commons. Another paradox, the student city is not experienced as the ideal city. The number of institutions of higher education is rather a sign of volatility: "the diploma is a passport to move elsewhere," says François Cusin. Surprisingly, in contrast to what the attractive city is inhabited by a majority of owners: an important rental Park is the cause - or the-d-result ' a significant mobility.
These results draw card of a France small towns sunny. First classification, Ajaccio is one of the more southern French cities (followed by Bastia) while Dunkirk, in the past, occupied the far north of the territory. In this sense, "the residential attractiveness borrows the same paths that the tourist attractiveness", wrote the researchers. Another novelty, "the map of the productive economy is less and less to the residential economy." "There are an attractive city model because that used its framework of life and its geographical location. This measure of the "Bilbao effect" of cities may be challenged by local actors, who today surf a little impressionistic results of surveys and urban marketing. Because the attractiveness to establish sustainable populations such as businesses, capital or job today is a major issue in the context of competition between cities and towns: despite dynamic and innovative urban policies, Lyon is that the 43rd largest, Lille is 82nd... The tool developed in partnership with Credit Foncier a vocation to be specified - including survey on the intentions of households - service also for real estate professionals.